It includes the chalk cliffs of Kent and Dorset, the rolling hills and fields of southeast England, the granite cliffs of Cornwall, the mountains of Wales, the uplands of the Peak District and the Pennines, the lakes and mountains of Cumbria, the Scottish lowlands, highlands and islands, and the fields, lakes and mountains of Northern Ireland.
Around 600 Ma, the Cadomian Orogeny (mountain building period) caused the English and Welsh landscape to be transformed into a mountainous region, along with much of north west Europe.
The Welsh Skiddaw slate deposits formed at around 500 Ma, during the Ordovician Period.
These are essentially the remains of folded sedimentary rock, deposited over the gneiss, from 1,000 Ma, with a notable 7 km thick layer of Torridon Sandstone being deposited about 800 Ma, as well as the debris deposited by an ice sheet 670 Ma.
The remains of ancient volcanic islands underlie much of central England with small outcrops visible in many places.
At about this time, around 425 Ma, north Wales (and south Mayo in Ireland) experienced volcanic activity.
The remains of these volcanoes are still visible, for example Rhobell Fwar, dating from 510 Ma.
Volcanic ashes and lavas deposited during this period are still found in the Mendip Hills and in Pembrokeshire.
Volcanic deposits formed Ben Nevis in the Devonian Period.
This gives rise to the wide variety of landscapes found across the UK.